Dalhousie University

Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences

Department of Sociology and Social Anthropology





Prof.: Dr. Julian Hermida

Course number: 2180

Teaching hours: Tuesdays/Thursdays 11.35-12.55

Term: Fall and Winter

Office: Room 2131

Tel.: 494-6278

Office hours:†††† Tuesdays and Thursdays from 1 to 1.30 pm, Tuesdays from 6.15 to 6.45 pm, or by appointment (Fall).

††††††††††††††††††††††† Winter office hours may change. If so, they will be announced in class at the beginning of the winter term and posted on the course website.

Email address:





The objectives of the course are to introduce students to the social scientific study of criminal behavior. The class will examine the notion of crime as a social phenomenon, the theories of crime, the development of criminal law, the methods and strategies to control criminal behavior and the main research findings in criminology. Additionally, the class will delve into the study of the structure and impact of the criminal justice system, with emphasis on contemporary Canadian criminal justice. The course also aims at helping students develop critical thinking, research, and writing skills. This class provides a general understanding of sociology of crime and criminal justice and a sound basis for further study in the area of social order and human justice.





        Knowledge is a constantly evolving process, which can be constructed personally and collectively.

        From an individual perspective, knowledge is personal, socially and historically contextualized, and dependent on psychological variables.

        From the class perspective, knowledge is a collective construction, where all participants can make their contribution.

        In the process of constructing knowledge, there is a dialectic relationship between action and reflection, where one feeds the other and vice versa.

        Successful learning is based on a personal involvement of students in their own learning.

        The learning environment, including the teaching methods, the teacherís attitude, and the class atmosphere, among other factors, is determinative of the studentsí approach to learning, as well as, the learning outcomes.

        The role of the teacher is that of a facilitator and tutor rather than a lecturer.

        Student peers are a powerful source of learning.

Evaluation is conceived mainly as formative.




This course is conceived so that students can:


1.      Understand crime as a social phenomenon.

1.1 Understand criminal behavior, and crime control as social phenomena.


2.      Appreciate and view crime from a sociological perspective.

2.1. Understand the methods used by criminologists.


3.      Critically evaluate the major theories and fundamental concepts in criminology 3.1. Analyze the basic theories of crime.

3.2  Be familiar with the major schools of criminology.

3.3  Be aware of the development of sociological criminology.

3.4  Understand the basic concepts, topics, issues, and terminology used by criminologists.


4.      Be aware of the influence of race, ethnicity, gender, immigration status, and social class on the process of defining criminality and the process of labeling criminals.


5.      Critically analyze the structure of the criminal justice system and the impact of the criminal justice system.

5.1. Understand the different models of conceiving the justice system.

5.2. Value and appreciate the significance of rights and guarantees in the Canadian criminal justice system.

5.3. Comprehend the differences between individual rights and social control perspectives.

5.4. Critically assess the prevailing theory of offense and crime participation in the Canadian criminal justice system.


6.      Apply sociological theories of crime to a myriad of contemporary criminology and criminal justice problems.

6.1. Use the knowledge on sociological theories of crime and criminal justice to analyze contemporary problems of Canadian society.

6.2. Apply the theories on crime and criminal justice to propose solutions to some of the current crime problems of Canadian society.

6.3. Critically reflect on media reports and cultural products concerning crime and criminality.





Deploy a range of advanced transferable skills, such as, oral and written communication skills, the accurate exposition of complex arguments and sets of research findings, the critical evaluation of competing explanations or complex arguments relating to some criminology and criminal justice sensitive topics.




Classroom activities will be designed to encourage students to play an active role in the construction of their own knowledge and in the design of their own learning strategies.

We will combine traditional lectures with other active teaching methodologies, such as group discussions, cooperative group solving problems, analysis of video segments depicting scenes relevant to criminology and criminal justice topics, debates, and construction of web sites. Class participation is a fundamental aspect of this course. Students will be encouraged to actively take part in all group activities and to give short oral group presentations throughout the course. Students will be expected to interact with media resources, such as, web sites, videos, DVDs, etc. In line with the postulates of Writing Across the Curriculum, writing will be integrated in all class assignments.




Evaluation is conceived mainly as formative and feedback will be provided all throughout the course. While strictly respecting University, Faculty and Department standards and policies, reasonable efforts will be made to include shared evaluation practices, i.e., a process where students have an active role in their own evaluation.


The evaluation of the studentsí achievement of the objectives of the course will be based on five main components: an essay or oral presentation, class participation/portfolio, and three exams. The first exam accounts for 30% of the final grade. Each of last two exams accounts for 20%. The essay or oral presentation accounts for 10% of the final grade and class participation/portfolio accounts for 20%.


Successful attainment of objectives depends mainly on class attendance and active class participation.




Students will discuss and propose good-faith questions for each of the exams based on the topics dealt with in the course. If the questions have a general consensus they will be part of a test bank. The exams will only contain questions that have been included in the test bank.


Passing requirements and scale of evaluation: The definitive evaluation criteria for the exams will be given to the students once the test bank has been completed. In general, however, a positive response must be given to the following questions in order to obtain full grade for each question in the exam. The criteria are formulated in the form of questions. The value of each evaluation criterion will also be given once the test bank for each exam is completed.



1.      Did you answer the question comprehensively? Are all relevant problems discussed? Was the answer readable and well organized? Did you make connections between issues discussed in your answer? Did your answer show an understanding of the topic dealt with?

2.      Did your answer discuss problems by reference to theoretical issues learned during the course? Did your answer show an understanding of the appropriate readings or class discussions? Did your answer show an understanding of the discussions and issues arisen in class? Did your answer make reference to class discussions, activities, and readings?

3.      Is there a critical personal assessment of the topic discussed? Does the personal assessment show some originality?




Students are expected to actively participate in every class with a positive attitude and to treat their classmates and instructor with respect. Their participation must make a positive impact on the class activities. Students are expected to be prepared for every class. Class attendance is a prerequisite to obtain the corresponding percentage of the grade under the class participation-portfolio category. Students are expected to create a portfolio to record all class assignments. Each portfolio will include, at least, the following materials: (i) a title page and a table of contents; (ii) all class activities, including one minute papers, small group activities and proposals for the test banks made in class, and (iii) a short summary essay on two of the activities included in the portfolio. The idea is to complete these two activities with knowledge acquired in the course after we originally did those two activities.


Portfolios will be turned in for review and feedback at least once during the year. A major prerequisite for the creation of a good portfolio is active participation in every class assignment. The deadline to hand in the portfolio is March 23, 2006 in class.


Passing requirements and scale of evaluation:a positive response must be given to the following questions in to obtain the maximum grade within this evaluation component. The criteria are formulated in the form of questions which the teacher will ask with respect to each student. All these criteria have the same value.


  1. Does the student actively participate in every class?
  2. Does the student show a positive attitude toward his or her classmates, the instructor, and the activities?
  3. Is the student prepared for every class? 
  4. Does the student volunteer to lead activities, debates or debriefs?
  1. Is the portfolio complete? Does it contain all activities made in class and all required components?
  2. Is there evidence that each of the activities was completed when discussed in class? Does the portfolio evidence the studentís active engagement with the activities?
  3. Are the responses to the activities creative, original, and intellectually challenging?
  4. Do the short essays integrate knowledge acquired throughout the course?
  5. Is there reference to theoretical issues and problems discussed in class in the two short essays?
  6. Has the student presented the portfolio for feedback to the professor? Does the final portfolio include the given feedback?




Students may choose to write an essay or give an oral presentation. The deadline for communicating the option is September 29, 2005.

Students who do not make an explicit option by the deadline will have to write an essay unless there are some available spots for a presentation.


Oral presentation


Students must select a topic for the oral presentation together with the professor. Students may conduct the presentation individually or in teams made up of 3 or 4 students.


Students are expected to research about the topic and to read from several sources for the presentation. The oral presentation may consist of a short talk, a discussion led by the students, a debate among the members of the group or between the team and the rest of the class, a panel discussion, or any other form. The students are free to structure the presentation as they deem fit and to make use of any available audiovisual resources. The oral presentation will last a maximum of 15 minutes. During the preparation of the presentation, students are welcome to meet with the professor for consultation, suggestions, and feedback on the evolution of the presentation. Students will have to present an outline of the presentation to the professor at least one week before the day of the presentation. The outline will have to include the equipment needed for the presentation, if any. During the presentation, the professorís role will be limited to listening passively. The rest of the class must actively participate in the presentation as an active audience. The professor will provide feedback after the presentation is over.


Passing requirements and scale of evaluation: a positive response must be given to the following questions in order to approve the presentation. The criteria are formulated in the form of questions which the teacher will ask with respect to each presentation. All these criteria have the same value.


1.      Does the presentation deal with the selected topic? Does the presentation show an understanding of topic dealt with?

2.      Does the presentation show a clear, coherent, and comprehensive treatment of the selected topic?

3.      Does the presentation integrate knowledge acquired throughout the course?

4.      Is there a critical personal assessment of the topic presented? In other words, the presentation is not a mere repetition of the main ideas exposed in the texts assigned as compulsory bibliography.

5.      Have the students engaged the audience throughout the presentation?



The topic of the critical research essay must be selected from the topics actually discussed in class. Other Criminology or Criminal Justice topics need the previous authorization of the professor. It is expected that the length of the research paper will not exceed 10 double-spaced pages.


Passing requirements and scale of evaluation: a positive response must be given to the following questions in order to approve the research paper. The criteria are formulated in the form of questions which the teacher will ask with respect to each paper. All these criteria have the same value.


1.      Does the research paper adequately deal with the selected topic? Does the research paper show an understanding of the topic dealt with?

2.      Does the research paper show a clear, coherent, and comprehensive treatment of the selected topic?

3.      Does the research paper integrate knowledge acquired throughout the course?

4.      Does the research paper make reference to class discussions and activities?

5.      Does the research paper follow the style, language, citation method, and organization analyzed in class?


Grading system


A+: 95-100†††† B+: 80-84†††††† C+: 65-69†††† D: 50-54

A:†† 90-94†††††† B:†† 75-79†††††††† C:†† 60-64†††† F: 0-49†††

A-:85-89†††††† B-: 70-74††††††† C-:55-59




The curriculum is flexible and is open to suggestions from students. We can examine criminology and criminal justice issues of interest to most students, even if they are not listed here. The following is a sample of issues which we will most probably be discussing. Note that we may not examine every single topic listed here.


1.      A brief history of criminology

2.      Gender and crimes

3.      Victims and victimization

4.      Theories of victimization

5.      Criminal Law and its Process

6.      Theory of offense

7.      Restorative justice

8.      Choice Theory

9.      Trait theories: biological and psychological trait theories

10.  Social structure theories

11.  The Chicago School

12.  Violent crimes

13.  Violence against women

14.  Strain theory

15.  Merton and Durkheim

16.  Theory of anomie

17.  Cultural deviance theory

18.  Terrorism

19.  International crimes

20.  Property crimes

21.  Social Process theories

22.  Social learning theory

23.  Labeling theory

24.  Primary and secondary deviance

25.  Substance abuse and crime

26.  Social conflict theory

27.  Marxist criminology

28.  Radical feminist theory

29.  Marxist feminism

30.  Peacemaking criminology

31.  Culpable and non culpable homicides

32.  Public order crimes

33.  Corporate crime

34.  Canadian criminal justice system

35.  Sentencing

36.  Crime participation

37.  The police

38.  Correctional institutions

39.  Release and re-entry

40.  The courts





This is a tentative calendar of readings and class activities. If class discussions or class activities take longer than originally estimated because everybody gets involved, they will not be cut short to follow this schedule of readings. They will simply be put off for the following class or rescheduled. Additionally, the teacher may substitute new topics for some of the ones included in this schedule, particularly if most students show an interest for some topics not planned to be covered. Changes to this schedule, including changes of midterm dates, will be announced in class and posted on the course website. Although reference is made to pages and chapters from the recommended textbooks, students can read these topics from any other Criminology or Criminal Justice book, respectively.





September 8

Introduction and orientation


September 13

Criminology views and introduction to Criminology.

Chapter 1 from Criminology book.

September 15


Pages 146 to 167 and chapter 8 from Criminal Justice book

September 20, 22, October 4, 6 and 18

Theory of offense

Chapter 2 from Criminology book and class notes.

September 27 and 29

Sexual assault

Pages 284 to 290 from Criminology book and class notes.

September 29

Methods of data collection

Pages 41 to 69 from Criminology book.

October 10

Crime patterns

Pages 69 to 80 from Criminology book.

October 13


Chapter 4 from Criminology book.

October 25 and 27

Restorative Justice

Pages 250 to 251 from Criminology book and 31to 33, 139, 195, 192 and 202 from Criminal Justice book.

November 3



November 8

Money Laundering

Class notes.

November 15 and 17

Classical and Neoclassical school of criminology

Chapter 5 from Criminology book.

November 22 and 24


Class notes

November 29

Death Penalty

Pages 130 to 131 from Criminology book and class notes.

January 3, 5, and 24


Chapter 290 to 294 from Criminology book and class notes.

January 10

Positivist school of Criminology

Chapter 6 from Criminology book.

January 17

Social Control and Strain theories

Chapters 7 and 8 from Criminology book.

January 19

Labeling theory

Chapter 8 from Criminology book.

January 24


Chapter 6 from Criminal Justice book.

January 31

Feminist criminology

Pages 247 to 250 from Criminology book and class notes.

February 7



February 9

Corporate crimes

Chapter 13 from Criminology book.

February 14 and 16


Class notes.

February 28 and March 2

Parole and probation

Chapter 8 from Criminal Justice book.

March 14

Critical Criminology

Chapter 9 from Criminology book.

March 16

Kidnappings and abductions

Class notes.

March 21


Substance abuse and crime

Criminology book page 383 and class notes.

March 23:

Integrated theories of crime

Chapter 10 from Criminology book.

March 30



April 4 and 6







        Canadian Criminal Justice Today: A Primer, by Curt T. Griffiths and Alison Hatch Cunningham (Toronto: Nelson Thomson Learning, 2003)





A web site for the course is available at Students will be able to consult the course outline, test banks, class notes, and other useful information.

All important announcements, such as exam dates, presentation dates, reading assignments, and deadlines are given in class and will not appear on the web site.




None of the activities imply interviewing or interacting with human beings outside the classroom. However, if students want to interview or interact with people for any of these activities please contact the teacher well in advance to comply with ethics requirements.




In these large classes, it is sometimes difficult to get to know each and every one of my students. So, I would like to meet personally with as many of you as possible during the term. Please come see me during my office hours. I am available not only for class help but also for other academic-related issues, such as writing letters of reference or helping with prospective graduate studies. I want to be available to answer questions for all students. So in addition to regular office hours and seeing me by appointment, I will every so often end class early, and invite students who have questions to meet with me right then and there. Also note that if access to the second floor is barred after 5 PM, please call me from downstairs and I will go down and let you in.




Dalhousie University now subscribes to, a computer based service which checks for originality in submitted papers. Any paper submitted by a student at Dalhousie University may be checked for originality to confirm that the student has not plagiarized from other sources. Plagiarism is considered a serious academic offence which may lead to loss of credit, suspension or expulsion from the University, or even the revocation of a degree. It is essential that there be correct attribution of authorities from which facts and opinions have been derived. At Dalhousie there are University Regulations which deal with plagiarism and, prior to submitting any paper in a course, students should read the Policy on Intellectual Honesty contained in the Calendar or on the Dalhousie web site at: - 12.

The Senate has affirmed the right of any instructor to require that student papers be submitted in both written and computer readable format, and to submit any paper to a check such as that performed by As a student in this class, you are to keep an electronic copy of any paper you submit, and the course instructor may require you to submit that electronic copy on demand. Copies of student papers checked by this process will be retained by




There are various university polices and procedures regarding university student disability issues. Student Accessibility Services handles the process of identifying students with disabilities, the types of accommodations appropriate for each student, and helps provide those accommodations. Students with disabilities should register as quickly as possible at Student Accessibility Services if they want to receive academic accommodations.To do so, students may phone 494-2836, e-mail <>, or drop in at the Killam, G28. For more information, consult the SAS website at