1. Read the class notes on hate crimes by clicking here.
1. Do a search about the following Canadian cases dealing with hate crimes and write a short –one or two paragraphs- summary of the main issue of each decision. What is your opinion on the decisions? Do you agree? Disagree? Why? Why not?
2. R. v. Keegstra (1990).
3. Léon Mugesera (2005).
4. Ahenakew (2006).
5. R. v. Andrews (1990)
3. Analyze the following scenarios and determine whether they constitute a hate crime or not. Write a short note with your analysis of the each scenario:
1. The members of a soccer team decided to go to a bar in town to celebrate a team member's birthday. Included in the group was Robert Pipkins, the only African-American on the team. Shortly after the team members entered the bar, a large group of skinheads appeared. These young toughs with shaved heads and jackets decorated with swastikas began to taunt Pipkins. They made monkey sounds and shouted “Nigger, get out”. The members of the soccer team decided to leave to avoid trouble. Duncan Kennedy, the last out the door, was yelling to the skinheads to leave Pipkins alone. The skinheads followed Kennedy chanting “Heil, Hitler!”
2. Some college students went to a bar. It was full, mostly with people from minority communities –Latinos, African Canadians, Asian Canadians. Since it was full, they were not allowed to get into the bar. Visibly angered, they went to a supermarket. They bought eggs and egged the bar. They also egged five vehicles and one house. Victims included an openly gay man and two African Canadian families.
3. Three African American men who were walking in the predominantly white neighborhood of Howard Beach, Queens, were attacked by white men. Two of the men managed to flee, but one, Glenn Moore, tripped on a curb and was beaten badly. The attackers used racial epithets while attacking Glenn Moore. The three black men, Moore, Richard Pope and Richard Walker, told the authorities they were in the area looking for a Chrysler 300 to steal and wandered into Howard Beach. Nicholas Minucci passed by them in his car, and then returned with his friends to attack the African American men. Minucci was arrested and confessed to the crime.
4. One lesbian woman, who was talking with group of other lesbian women, described her experience in a public park when three men walked past and harassed them. We were in a line on the sidewalk and they walked down the line and they apparently patted or pinched one woman on the butt, and she kind of knocked their hand out of the way.... When they reached me...they pinched me on the butt. And my girlfriend saw this and said "Get your hands off her." So they stopped, turned around and said "Want to fight, bitch?" We kind of circled up and, you know, we were all facing them and said "No, leave us alone, get out of here." We tried to get them to leave and they wouldn't. When she said she didn't want to fight, he just stuck his fist out and broke her nose...As he was getting ready to throw the punch ... he said "fucking dykes...." One person [got] a cut open on their cheek, face. And another one had her collarbone broken and got knocked unconscious. I got kicked in the knee and upper thigh and was severely bruised. And then somebody came by and helped scare them away for us.
5. A gay college student and his lover told their experience of ongoing harassment on campus. Just on a daily basis we were taunted, called "fags" to the point where ... we didn't even want to go to the cafeteria, we'd just go out to eat. Then nightly we pretty much, we never knew what we were going to wake up to or be awakened by in the night, like someone urinating on the door or sticking stuff, something on the door.... When people write "fag" on your door and that was one of the main things.... Put a gay sticker on the door with one guy bent over and another behind him with a big line through it.... It was so awful.
4. Write one question about hate crimes for the test bank.
5. Pass in a written report answering all these questions next class. You can work individually or in small groups. There is no page limit.